Photo Slideshow
See all of the photos from this story
Download PDF
Download a printable PDF version of this article

萍乡圣万本贸易有限公司

草榴直播安卓版下载

By Aaron Hoover

任丘顺泰高商贸有限公司

Modern medicine has defeated a lot of bogeymen, but it remains locked in a war of attrition with an age-old nemesis: infection.

Nationwide, hospital care workers confront about 1.7 million healthcare-related infections annually — and lose about 99,000 patients to them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s more than double the fatalities tied to auto wrecks every year.

What’s worse, medicine’s main weapons are flawed or weakening. Disinfectants are impossible to apply everywhere, inevitably leaving spots for bacteria to grow. Chemical controls, such as coated implants, can have dangerous side effects or harm the environment. Antibiotics, one-time miracle cures, are losing their punch to genetically resistant bacteria.

But common menaces such as Staphylococcus aureus, as well as more dangerous cousins such as “flesh eating” methicillin-resistant staph — commonly known by the initials MRSA — may soon face a new barrier.

Ironically, it is inspired by a fearsome flesh eater of its own kind: the shark.

Conventional controls aim to kill bacteria. Tapping the discoveries of a University of Florida materials science and engineering researcher, UF biotechnology spin-off Sharklet Technologies has a radically different approach. The Alachua-based company seeks to discourage bacteria from colonizing surfaces in hospitals and medical devices using a microscopic pattern modeled on the skin of the ocean’s most notorious predator.

Sharklet is gearing up to sell what it calls “engineered surfaces” that, laboratory tests show, ward off not only staph and Escherichia coli, but also the more dangerous MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

“We believe we will have hygienic surface covers on the market this year,” says Sharklet Technologies CEO Joe Bagan. “We’re working on different medical devices to put our pattern on, and it’s going to be a little longer for those. Maybe a couple of years.”

梧州祥全瑞科技有限公司


The latest weapon in the war on bacteria didn’t spring from a medical laboratory. Instead, it is rooted in materials science and engineering Professor Tony Brennan’s efforts to solve a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships.

Some people are lucky enough to have great ideas. For Brennan, it was more a matter of asking a great question.

Brennan remembers the day well. He was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu in 2002 as part of his Navy-sponsored research. Convinced he could stop tiny algal spores from attaching by using rows of microscopic channels, he had eagerly awaited a look at experimental samples previously submerged in the harbor. But the results were abysmal, with the samples coming out of the water festooned with algae.

He and a handful of colleagues were watching an algae-coated nuclear submarine leave port when the question popped into his head.

“The submarine looked like a big whale lumbering out of the harbor,” Brennan says. “I asked, ‘Do whales foul?’ And everyone said, ‘yeah, whales are heavily fouled.’ So I started asking the question, ‘which marine and freshwater animals don’t foul?’”

He couldn’t get the question answered to his satisfaction that day. But follow-up research revealed that of all big marine animals, sharks remain most glisteningly smooth.

Brennan spent much of his career engineering new biomaterials for dental implants. He asked a colleague at the Florida Institute of Technology, Geoffrey Swain, to take an impression of a shark skin using a common silicone material. Like an impression for an ordinary tooth crown, it provided a negative imprint — in this case, a small, but visible pattern of rounded-off, diamond like, scales. (Many people believe sharks don’t have scales. In fact, the creatures’ scales are very small. They are known as placoid scales, or dermal denticles.)

Each scale was made up of seven tiny ribs. Brennan used a special tool, an optical profilometer, to measure the scales’ corresponding roughness. To his surprise, the ribs’ width-to-height ratios closely matched one of his mathematical models for roughness — one that he had estimated would discourage algae spores from settling.

At the time, Brennan believed the spores would have a negative reaction to surface roughness features measured in a handful of microns. The shark scale ribs were far bigger. So he shrunk the sharkskin rib pattern by a factor of 20, separating each rib by two to five microns. Tapping a process similar to the one used to make computer chips, he next fabricated thousands of these tiny “riblet” patterns on plastic.

He plunged the plastic into algae-laced seawater, waited an hour and pulled it out.

“The first time we tested it,” Brennan says, “we had an 85-percent reduction in the settlement of green algae.”

保定复欣万机械有限公司


It was just one small test with just one type of fouling organism, but the results were exciting. That’s because algae and its ilk are major problems not only for the Navy but for all shippers. Fouled vessels have more drag as they move through water, slowing them and cutting into their fuel efficiency. The Navy estimates fouled hulls use 15 to 30 percent more fuel than clean ones, raising its fuel bill by tens of millions of dollars.

Following in the footsteps of shipbuilders since antiquity, the Navy and commercial shipping lines have fought the problem with copper-based paint. But pollution and cost concerns spurred the Navy to look for more environmentally friendly, less expensive solutions.

With the Office of Naval Research’s continued sponsorship, Brennan set about confirming and expanding his results while also seeking to understand the underlying mechanism. He applied for his first patent in 2004. Several years and at least $1 million later — the Florida High Technology Corridor Council has also been a supporter — Brennan has confirmed that his pattern resists not only green algae but also some varieties of barnacles. He has received two patents, has applications for several more patents under consideration and continues to work toward testing the pattern on real-life ship hulls.

Meanwhile, the research has also expanded in a vastly different direction. One of the fouling organisms that Brennan sought to discourage was the tubeworm. Tubeworms need bacteria to settle. So, in the spring of 2005, he asked an undergraduate at work in his laboratory to grow some bacteria on the Sharklet™ pattern.

A few weeks later, Mathew Blackburn reported back: He couldn’t do it. The E. coli bacteria would not attach. Brennan assigned two graduate students to work with Blackburn, but the team could coax the E. coli to grow only up to the side of the pattern.

It wasn’t until Brennan read Blackburn’s final report that the idea dawned on him: Perhaps the pattern could do more than ward off organisms that go after ships. Maybe it could discourage those bad bacteria that target people.

“He thought he was failing, and when I got his report and looked at it, it was like, ‘Holy smokes!’” Brennan says. “This could be very interesting.”

濮阳东美耀机械有限公司

Marine fouling organisms and bacteria are very different life forms. But the two also share important similarities, Brennan says. Both can move, and both put down adhesive pads when they first stick to a surface. Green algae and many bacteria also seem to appreciate company. They take hold singly or in small groups, then seek to establish large colonies.

Like other life forms, Brennan says, bacteria and fouling organisms seek the path of least resistance. He believes the Sharklet pattern discourages colonization because it requires too much energy to put down roots. The consequence: The organisms decide to keep house hunting. With enough surface protected, the theory goes, they die or become less of a threat.

Whatever the mechanism, the Sharklet pattern works — in laboratory tests, at least.
The Navy’s interests were confined to fouling, so Brennan turned to UF’s extensive medical resources to pursue the medical applications.

In 2007, he founded Sharklet Technologies, based at UF’s Sid Martin Biotechnology Development Incubator. There, Brennan chairs the company’s scientific advisory board.

Brennan’s and the company’s tests reveal that the pattern is remarkably effective at delaying colonization from staph, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and other pathogens. Bagan, Sharklet Technologies’ CEO, says the independent infectious disease laboratory also found a “statistically significant” difference in the survival of MRSA and VRE bacteria in short time trials.

Sharklet Technologies’ time-lapse images tell the tale graphically.

Bacterial colonies grow steadily on a smooth surface over a period of three weeks, whereas they seem to struggle to get established on the Sharklet pattern. By day 21, bacterial films turn 77 percent of the smooth surface bright red —
versus 35 percent of the Sharklet pattern.

As promising as the results have been, the pattern has yet to be tested in a real medical setting. But that’s about to change.

Bagan says Sharklet Technologies has cleared all the major hurdles in an effort to test adhesive-backed versions of the pattern on common hospital surfaces at a large California hospital. Technicians, he says, have already determined the surfaces most likely to contain large bacterial colonies. Known as “high-touch” surfaces, they include nursing call buttons, bed rail control panels and touch-screen cardiac monitor screens. The company plans to apply the adhesive-backed Sharklet pattern to these surfaces and then monitor them for colonization.

Down the road, Sharklet Technologies also hopes to cover and test medical devices and instruments. Bagan says that because the pattern is not a chemical coating and does not introduce any new substances, it probably will not require clinical trials, but some safety trials may be needed.

Whatever the hurdles, the market is huge. The CDC estimates that 32 percent of all healthcare-related infections are tied to urinary tract infections, often stemming from urinary catheters. If the Sharklet pattern could make catheters safer, that alone would have a huge impact.

Brennan, for his part, is eager to gauge his invention’s appeal.

“I am anxious to see this thing put out there because once you put it on the market, you really get a test,” he says. “The market will determine viability.”

 

 

related link:
www.sharklet.com柳州吉润泰机械有限公司

昭通盈盈瑞科技有限公司
芜湖恒飞高有限公司
JOJO直播ios官网下载 雨云直播安卓版下载 荔枝视频ios官网下载 黄瓜直播ios官网下载 免费黃色直播ios官网下载 香蜜直播安卓版下载 大番号安卓版下载 91直播ios官网下载 青青草ios官网下载 蜜桃直播安卓版下载 火爆社区ios官网下载 十里桃花直播安卓版下载 小宝贝直播安卓版下载 樱花雨直播安卓版下载 小蝌蚪视频ios官网下载 酷咪直播安卓版下载 望月直播安卓版下载 小怪兽直播安卓版下载 猛虎直播安卓版下载 小猪视频ios官网下载 柠檬直播安卓版下载 f2富二代ios官网下载 烟花直播安卓版下载 小宝贝直播ios官网下载 泡芙短视频安卓版下载 桃花直播安卓版下载 91香蕉ios官网下载 成版人抖音ios官网下载 玉米视频安卓版下载 泡芙ios官网下载 番茄直播ios官网下载 丝瓜视频污ios官网下载 黄瓜视频安卓版下载 遇见直播安卓版下载 性福宝ios官网下载 棉花糖直播安卓版下载 猛虎视频ios官网下载 小小影视安卓版下载 抖阴直播ios官网下载 夏娃直播安卓版下载 葡萄视频安卓版下载 含羞草安卓版下载 粉色安卓版下载 花样视频安卓版下载 压寨直播ios官网下载 小v视频ios官网下载 妖妖直播安卓版下载 豆奶短视频ios官网下载 七秒鱼直播ios官网下载 望月ios官网下载 性福宝安卓版下载 小怪兽直播ios官网下载 菠萝蜜视频安卓版下载 小姐姐直播安卓版下载 牛牛视频安卓版下载 avgo安卓版下载 月光宝盒直播安卓版下载 IAVBOBOios官网下载 食色短视频安卓版下载 好嗨哟直播ios官网下载 老王视频安卓版下载 圣女直播ios官网下载 快狐短视频安卓版下载 尤蜜视频安卓版下载 芭乐视频ios官网下载 蜜桃直播安卓版下载 小天仙直播安卓版下载 东京视频安卓版下载 草榴直播ios官网下载 月亮直播安卓版下载 Avnight安卓版下载 花粥直播安卓版下载 蜜柚安卓版下载 富二代f2短视频ios官网下载 红娘直播安卓版下载 豌豆直播安卓版下载 蓝精灵直播ios官网下载 草莓安卓版下载 牛牛视频安卓版下载 妖妖直播安卓版下载 夏娃直播安卓版下载 橙子直播安卓版下载 千层浪直播ios官网下载 成版人音色短视频ios官网下载 丝瓜安卓版下载 千层浪ios官网下载 咪咪直播ios官网下载 9uuios官网下载 小蝌蚪安卓版下载 小狐仙直播ios官网下载 成版人快手安卓版下载 薰衣草直播ios官网下载 小蝌蚪ios官网下载 Avnight安卓版下载 BB直播ios官网下载 考拉直播安卓版下载 性福宝安卓版下载 考拉直播安卓版下载 黄鱼视频ios官网下载 富二代f2短视频ios官网下载 泡芙短视频ios官网下载 快猫安卓版下载 向日葵安卓版下载 考拉直播ios官网下载 水晶直播ios官网下载 7秒鱼直播安卓版下载 成人快手安卓版下载 9uu安卓版下载 蘑菇视频ios官网下载 初恋视频ios官网下载 柠檬视频安卓版下载 小宝贝直播ios官网下载 泡芙安卓版下载 小宝贝直播安卓版下载 初见直播ios官网下载 BB直播ios官网下载 黄瓜安卓版下载 梦幻直播安卓版下载 遇见直播ios官网下载 盘他直播安卓版下载 菠萝蜜ios官网下载 食色安卓版下载 彩色直播ios官网下载 富二代f2短视频安卓版下载 月夜直播ios官网下载 豆奶ios官网下载 梦鹿直播安卓版下载 小花螺直播安卓版下载 夏娃直播ios官网下载 花椒直播安卓版下载 盘她安卓版下载 葫芦娃ios官网下载 男人本色西瓜视频安卓版下载 小公主直播ios官网下载 97豆奶视频ios官网下载 盘他ios官网下载 香草视频安卓版下载 遇见直播ios官网下载 名优馆ios官网下载 夜巴黎直播安卓版下载 富二代f2抖音安卓版下载 茶馆视频ios官网下载 小狐仙直播安卓版下载 微啪安卓版下载 和欢视频ios官网下载 猫咪软件ios官网下载 柚子直播安卓版下载 丝瓜安卓版下载 草莓直播ios官网下载 佳丽直播ios官网下载 蓝颜ios官网下载 蓝颜ios官网下载 陌秀直播ios官网下载 米老鼠直播安卓版下载